67
G. Bersuker, C. S. Park, J. Barnett, P.S. Lysaght, P. D. Kirsch, C.D. Young, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, B. Foran, K. van Benthem, S. J. Pennycook, P. M. Lenahan and J. T. Ryan, "The effect of interfacial layer properties on the performance of Hf-based gate stack devices", J. Appl. Phys. 100, p.094108, (2006)
66
K.S.Chang, M. Green , J. Suehle , E. Vogel , H. Xiong , J. Hattrick-Simpers , I. Takeuchi , O. Famodu , K. Ohmori, P. Ahmet , T. Chikyow , P. Majhi , B. H. Lee and M. Gardner, "Combinatorial Study of Ni-Ti-Pt Ternary Metal Gate Electrodes on HfO2 for the Advanced Gate Stack", Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, p.142108, (2006)
65
G. Thareja, S. Rhee, H.-C. Wen, R. Harris, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee and J.C. Lee, "NMOS Compatible Work Function of TaN Metal Gate With Gadolinium Oxide Buffer Layer on Hf-Based Dielectrics", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 27, p.802, (2006)
64
D.Heh, R. Choi, C.D. Young, B. H. Lee and G.Bersuker, "A novel bias temperature instability characterization methodology for high-k MOSFETs", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 27, p.849, 2006.
63
J.L.Gavartin, D.Munz Ramo, A.L.Shluger, G.Bersuker, B. H. Lee, “Negative oxygen vacancies in HfO2 as charge traps in high-k stacks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, p.082908, (2006)
62
H.K. Park, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, S.C. Song, M. Chang, C.D. Young , G. Bersuker, J.C. Lee and H. Hwang, “Decoupling of cold carrier effects in hot carrier reliability assessment of HfO2 gated nMOSFETs”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., v.27, 8, p.662, (2006)
61
B. H. Lee, P. Kirsch, H. Alshareef, P. Majhi, R. Choi, S. Song, H. H. Tseng and R. Jammy, "Review of alternative gate stack technology research during the last decade", Ceramist, 9, p.57, (2006)
60
S. C. Song, M. M. Hussain, J. Barnett, B. S. Ju, and B. H. Lee, “Integrating dual workfunction metal gates in CMOS,” Solid State Technology, 49(8), pp.47-50, August, (2006)
59
K .Choi, H.N. Alshareef, H.C. Wen, R.Harris, H.Luan, Y. Senzaki, P. Lysaght, P. Majhi and B. H. Lee, "Effective Work Function Modulation of atomic-layer-deposition-TaN film by capping layer", Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 032113, (2006)
58
H.C. Wen,R. Choi, G.A.Brown, T.Boscke, K.Matthews, H.R.Harris, K.Choi, H.N.Alshareef, H.Luan, G.Bersuker, P.Majhi, D.L.Kwong, and B. H. Lee, "Comparison of effective workfunction extraction methods using capacitance and current measurement techniques", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett.,27,7,p.598, (2006)
57
C.D. Young, D. Heh, S. Nadkarni, R. Choi, J.J. Peterson, J. Barnett, B. H. Lee, and G. Bersuker, “Electron Trap Generation in High-k Gate Stacks by Constant Voltage Stress”, IEEE Trans. Dev. Mat. Reliability, 6, p.123-131, (2006)
56
B.H. Lee, J.W. Oh, H.H. Tseng, R. Jammy and H. Huff, "Gate Stack Technology for Nano Scale Devices: Current and Future Challenges", Materials Today, v.9, p.32, (2006) (Invited)
55
S. C. Song, Z. Zhang, C. Huffman, J. H. Sim, S. H. Bae, P. Kirsch, P. Majhi, N. Moumen, and B. H. Lee, “Highly Manufacturable Advanced Gate Stack Technology for Sub 45nm Self-Aligned Gate-First CMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. on Elec. Dev. 53, p.979, (2006) (Invited)
54
S. C. Song, Z. Zhang, C. Huffman, S. H Bae, J. H. Sim, and B. H. Lee, “Improved Gate-Edge Profile of Metal/High-k Gate Stack Using a NH3 Ashing Process in Gate-First CMOSFETs”, Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. 9, G4, (2006)
53
S.A. Krishnan, M.Quevedo, R. Harris, P. D. Kirsch, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, G. Bersuker and J.C. Lee, "NBTI Dependence on Dielectric Thickness and Nitrogen concentration in Ultra-scaled HfSiON Dielectric/ ALD-TiN Gate Stacks", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, p.2945, (2006)
52
C.Y. Kang, R. Choi , S.C. Song , C.D. Young, G. Bersuker, B. H. Lee, and J.C. Lee, "Transient Bi-Carrier Response in High-k Dielectrics and its Impact on Transient Charge Effects in High-k CMOS Device", Appl. Phys. Lett., 88, p.162905, (2006)
51
H. Luan, H. N. Alshareef, H. R. Harris, H. C. Wen, K. Choi, Y. Senzaki, P. Majhi and B. H. Lee, "Evaluation of titanium silicon nitride as gate electrodes for complimentary metal-oxide semicondiuctor", Appl. Phys. Lett., 88, p.142113, (2006)
50
H.N. Alshareef, H. F. Luan, K. Choi, H.C. Wen, H.R. Harris, Y. Senzaki, P. Majhi and B. H. Lee, "Metal gate Work Function Engineering Using AlNx Interfacial Layers", Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, p.111124, (2006)
49
S.H.Bae, S.C.Song, K.Choi, G.Bersuker, G.A.Brown, D.L.Kwong, and B. H. Lee, "Thickness optimization of the TiN metal gate with polysilicon-capping layer on Hf-based high-k dielectric", Microelectronic Engineering, 83, 460, (2006)
48
Z. Zhang, S.C. Song, M. Quevedo-Lopez, K. Choi, P. Kirsch, P. Lysaght, and B. H. Lee, “Co-Optimization of Metal Gate/High-k Stack to Achieve High-Field Mobility > 90% of SiO2 Universal with EOT = ~1 nm”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 27, p.185, (2006)
47
R. Choi, C.D. Young, G. Bersuker, Y.Zhao, B. H. Lee, "Characterization and Reliability Measurement Issues in Novel Gate Stack Devices", Thin Solid Films, 504, p.223, (2006)
46
P.Majhi, HC.Wen, H.N.Alshareef, H.R.Harris, H.Luan, K.Choi, C.S.Park, S.C.Song, B. H. Lee and R.Jammy, “A systematic approach to addressing metal gate issues on high-k dielectrics for future generation CMOS”, MICRO, (2006)
45
G. Bersuker, B. H. Lee and H. Huff, “Novel dielectric Materials for Future transistor Generations”, Int. J. of High speed electronics and systems, v.16, n.1,  p.221-239, (2006)
44
H.N. Alshareef, K. Choi, H.C. Wen, H. F. Luan, H.R. Harris, Y. Senzaki, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee, R.Jammy, S. Aguirre-Tostado, B. E. Gnade, and R. M. Wallace "Composition dependence of the work function of Ta1-xAlxNy Metal Gates", Appl. Phys. Lett., 88, p.072108, (2006)
43
M. S. Rahman, H. Park, M. Chang, D. Lee, B. H. Lee and H. Hwang “Enhanced Reliability and Performance of High-k MOSFET by Two-Step Annealing”, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, G127, (2006)
42
P.Kirsch, M.A.Quevedo-Lopez, H.J. Li, Y. Senzaki, J.J. Peterson, S.C.Song, S.A.Krishnan, N. Moumen, J. Barnett, G. Bersuker, P.Y. Hung, B.H.Lee, T. Lafford, Q. Wang, D. Gay, J. G.Ekerdt, "Nucleation and growth study of atomic layer deposited HfO2 gate dielectrics resulting in improved scaling and electron mobility," J. Appl. Phys., 99(2), 023508 (2006).
41
S.C. Song, J. Sim, Z. Zhang, S. Bae, P. Kirsch, G. Bersuker, and B. H. Lee, "Morphology and Crystallization of Ultra Thin HfON (EOT≤1nm) with TiN Metal Gate: Impact on Electron Mobility", Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, G77, (2006)
40
C.S. Park, N. Moumen, J. H. Sim, J. Barnnet, B. H. Lee, and G. Bersuker, “Performance of HfO2 Gate Stacks with in-situ Grown and O3 Chemical Interfacial Oxide Layers”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, p.253510, (2005)
39
M.S. Akbar, N.Moumen, J.Barnett, B. H. Lee, and J.C.Lee, “Improvement in bias instabilities of Hf-silicate by dilute hydrochloric acid(500:1) post deposition rinsing and its effect after high pressure H2 anneal”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, p.252903, (2005)
38
H. Luan, H. N. Alshareef, P. S. Lysaght, H. R. Harris, H. C. Wen, K. Choi, Y. Senzaki, P. Majhi and B. H. Lee, “Evaluation of tantalum silicon alloy system as gate electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, p.212110, (2005)
37
H. R. Harris, R. Choi, J.H. Sim, C. Young, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee, G. Bersuker, “Electrical Observation of Deep Traps in High-k/Metal Gate Stack Transistors”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 26, p.839, (2005)
36
H. Park, M. S. Rahman, M. Chang, B. H. Lee, R. Choi, C. D. Young and H. Hwang, “Improved Interface Quality and Charge-Trapping Characteristics of MOSFETs With High-k Gate Dielectric”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 26. p.725, (2005)
35
R. Choi, S. C. Song, C. D. Young, G. Bersuker, and B. H. Lee, “Charge trapping and detrapping characteristics in hafnium silicate gate dielectric using an inversion pulse measurement technique”, App. Phys. Lett., 87, p.122901, (2005)
34
H.-C. Wen, P. Lysaght, M. Campin, B. Foran, G. Lian, Rusty Harris, H. Alshareef, K. Choi, H. Luan, C. Huffman, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee and D.L. Kwong, “Thermal response of Ru electrodes in contact with SiO2 and Hf based high-K gate dielectrics”, J. Appl. Phys. 98, p.043520, (2005)
33
K. Choi, P. Lysaght, H. Alshareef, C. Huffman, H.-C. Wen, R. Harris, H. Luan,P.-Y. Hung, C. Sparks, M. Cruz, K. Matthews, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee, “Growth mechanism of TiN film on dielectric films and the effects on the work function”, Thin Solid Films, 486, p.141, (2005)
32
P. S. Lysaght, B. Foran, G. Bersuker, J. J. Peterson, C. D. Young, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee, and H. R. Huff, “ Physical comparison of HfO2 transistors with polycrystalline silicon and TiN electrodes”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, p.082903, (2005)
31
Z. Zhang, S.C. Song, C.Huffman, M. M. Hussain, J. Barnett, N.Moumen, H.N. Alshareef, P.Majhi, J.H. Sim, S.H. Bae, and B. H. Lee, “Integration of Dual Metal Gate CMOS on High-k Dielectrics Utilizing a Metal Wet Etch Process”, J. Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. 8, G271, (2005)
30
S.C.Song, B. H. Lee, Z.Zhang, S.H.Bae, K.Choi, P.Zeitzoff, “Impact of Deposition Method of Metal Gate on Characteristics of Gate-First MOSFET with Hf-Silicate”, Electrochemical and solid-state Lett., 8, G261, (2005)
29
C.D. Young, P. Zeitzoff, G.A. Brown, G.Bersuker, B. H. Lee, and J.R. Hauser, “Intrinsic mobility evaluation of high-k gate dielectric transistors using pulse Id-Vg”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 26 , p.586, (2005)
28
H.N. Alshareef, H.C. Wen, K. Choi, R. Harris, H. Luan, P. Lysaght, P. Majhi, M. El-Bouanani, V. Ukride, and B. H. Lee, “Modulation of the work function of silicon gate electrode using thin TaN interlayers”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, p.052109, (2005)
27
G. Bersuker, P. Zeitzoff, J. Sim, B. H. Lee, R. Choi, G. Brown, C. Young, “Mobility evaluation in transistors with charge-trapping gate dielectrics”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, p.042905, (2005)
26
J.H.Sim, S.C.Song, P.D.Kirsch, C.D.Young, R.Choi, D.L.kwong, B. H. Lee and G.Bersuker, “Effect of ALD HfO2 thickness on charge trapping and mobility”, Microelectronic Eng., 80, p.218, (2005)
25
B.H. Lee, R. Choi, J. Sim, S. Krishnan, J. Peterson, G.A. Brown and G.Bersuker, “Validity of Constant Voltage Stress Based Reliability Assessment of High-k Devices”, IEEE Trans. Dev. Mat. Reliability, v.5, p.20, (2005) (Invited)
24
J.H. Sim, B. H. Lee R. Choi, S.-C.Song, and G. Bersuker, “Hot Carrier Degradation of HfSiON Gate Dielectrics with TiN Electrode”, IEEE Trans. Dev. Mat. Reliability, v.5, p.177, (2005)
23
S.C. Song, Z. Zhang, and B. H. Lee, “Effects of Boron Diffusion in pMOSFETs With TiN-HfSiO Gate Stack”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 26, p.366, (2005)
22

C.Y. Kang, P. Lysaght, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, S.J. Rhee, C. H.Choi, M. S. Akbar, and J.C. Lee, “Nickel-silicide phase effects on flatband voltage shift and equivalent oxide thickness decrease of hafnium silicon oxynitride metal-silicon-oxide capacitors”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, p.222966, (2005)

21
C. D. Young, G. Bersuker, Y. Zhao, J. J. Peterson, J. Barnett, G. A. Brown, J. H. Sim, R. Choi, B. H. Lee and P. M. Zeitzoff, "Probing stress effects in HfO2 gate stacks with time dependent measurements", Microelectronics and Reliability, vol. 45, No. 5-6, p. 806, (2005)
20
C.D. Young, Y. Zhao, M. Pendley, B. H. Lee, K. Matthews, J.H. Sim, R. Choi, G.A. Brown, R.W. Murto and G. Bersuker, “Ultra-Short Pulse Current-Voltage Characterization of the Intrinsic Characteristics of High-κ Devices”, Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys., vol. 44, No. 4B, 2437, (2005)
19
B.H. Lee, C. Young, R. Choi, J.H. Sim, G. Bersuker and G. Brown, “Transient Charging and Relaxation in High-k Gate Dielectric and Their Implications”, Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys., Vol. 44, No. 4B, 2415, (2005)
18
J.H. Sim, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, C. Young and G. Bersuker, “Trapping/De-Trapping Gate Bias Dependence of Hf-Silicate Dielectrics with Poly and TiN Gate Electrode", Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys., 44, 4B, p.2420 (2005)