95
H. Park, R.Choi, B.H. Lee, G. Bersuker, H. Hwang, “Stress-Polarity-Independent Negative Threshold Voltage Shift in HfO2/TiN P-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1: 47 (1), pp. 136-138, 2008.
94
P.S. Lysaght, J.C. Woicik, M. A. Sahiner, B.H. Lee and R. Jammy, “Incipient amorphous-to-crystalline transition in HfO2 as a function of thickness scaling and anneal temperature", J. of Non-Crystalline Solids, 354, p.399, 2008.
93
H.K. Park, M.S. Jo, H.J. Choi, M. Hasan, R. Choi, P. Kirsch, C.Y. Kang, B.H. Lee, T.W. Kim, T.H. Lee and H. Hwang, “The Effect of Nanoscale Nonuniformity of Oxygen Vacancy on Electrical and Reliability Characteristics of HfO2 MOSFET Devices,” IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 29, p.54, Jan. 2008.
92
H.C. Wen, P. Majhi, K.Choi, C.S.Park, H.Alshareef, H.Rusty, H.Luan, H.Niimi, H.B.Park, G.Bersuker, P.Lysaght, D.L.Kwong, S.C.Song, B. H. Lee and R. Jammy, “Decoupling the Fermi level pinning effect and intrinsic limitations on p-type effective work function metal electrodes”, Microelectronic Engineering, 85, p.2, Jan. 2008.
91
Y.Y.Zhang, J.Oh, T.S Bae, Z.Zhong, S.G.Li, S.Y. Jung, K.Y.Park, G.W.Lee, J.S.Wang, P.Majhi, B.H.Lee, H.H. Tseng, Y.H. Jeong, H.D. Lee, “Phase Separation of Ni Germanide Formed on a Ge-on-Si Structure for Ge MOSFETs,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Lett. 11(1), H1, 2008.
90
B.H.Lee, S.C.Song, R.Choi and P.Kirsch, “Metal Electrode/High-k Dielectric Gate Stack Technology for Power Management,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Device, 55, p.8, Jan. 2008. (Invited)
89
B. H. Lee, C.Y.Kang, S. Krishnan, P.Kirsch, D. Heh, C. Young, J.W. Yang, G. Bersuker, R.Choi, H.D.Lee, “Electric-field-driven dielectric breakdown of metal-insulator-metal hafnium silicate”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, p.243514, 2007.
88
P. Lysaght, J.C. Woicik , M. Sahiner, B. H. Lee, R. Jammy, “Characterizing crystalline polymorph transitions in HfO2 by extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 122910, 2007.
87
S. C. Song, M. M.Hussain, C. Burham, C. S. Park, B. H. Lee, and R. Jammy, "Enhanced Process-Induced Strain using Metal Gate/High-k Dielectric Stack on Nano-scale CMOSFET", Solid State Technology, September, 2007.
86
S. C. Song, M. M.Hussain, C. Burham, C. S. Park, B. H. Lee, and R. Jammy, “Strain-enhanced scaling of HK+MG CMOSFETs,” Solid State Technology, 50(9), pp.46-49, September, 2007.
85
H. Park, R. Choi, B.H. Lee, and H. Hwang, "Improved Hot Carrier Reliability Characteristics of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors with High-k Gate Dielectric by Using High Pressure Deuterium Post Metallization Annealing", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 46 (33), p. 786, 2007.
84
T. Boscke, S. Govindarajan , P.D. Kirsch , P.Y. Hung , C. Krug , B. H. Lee, J. Heitmann , U. Schroeder , G. Pant , B.E. Gnade , W.H. Krautschneider, “Stabilization of Higher-k Tetragonal HfO2 by SiO2 Admixture Enabling Thermally Stable Metal Insulator Metal Capacitors”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 072902, (2007)
83
S. Govindarajan, T. S. Böscke, P. Sivasubramani, U. Schröder, S. Ramanathan, P.D. Kirsch,B. E. Gnade, B. H. Lee, H.-H. Tseng, R. Jammy, “Higher Permittivity Rare Earth Doped Hafnium Oxide for sub-45nm Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Device Applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 062906, (2007)
82
H.C. Floresca, J. Wang, M. Kim, J. Kim, C.Y. Kang, R. Choi, S.C. Song, H.H. Tseng, B. H. Lee, R. Jammy, "Determination of Strain in the Silicon Channel Induced by a Metal Electrode", Microscopy and Microanalysis, 13, Supplement S02, pp 838-839, (2007).
81
C.Y. Kang, R. Choi, M. Hussain, J. Wang, Y.J. Suh, H. Floresca, M. Kim, J. Kim, B. H. Lee, R. Jammy “Effects of Metal Gate-Induced Strain on the Performance of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors with Titanium Nitride Gate Electrode and Hafnium Oxide Dielectric”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, p.033511, (2007)
80
Y. Wang, K. P. Cheung, R. Choi, G. A. Brown, B. H. Lee, "Error and correction in capacitance-voltage measurement due to the presence of source and drain", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 28, p.640, (2007)
79
C.D.Young, D. Heh, A. Neugroschel, R.Choi, B.H.Lee, G.Bersuker, “Electrical characterization and analysis technique for high-k era", Microelectronics Reliability, 47, pp.479-488, (2007)
78
C.Y. Kang, R. Choi, S.C. Song and B. H. Lee, "Effects of Gate Edge Profile On Off-state Leakage Suppression in Metal Gate/High-k Dielectric Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors", Appl. Phys. Lett., 90, 183501, (2007)
77
S. Yoshi, C. Krug, D. heh, H.J. na, H.R. Harris, J.W, Oh, P.D. Kirsch, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee, H.H. Tseng, R. jammy, J.C. Lee and S.K. Banerjee, "Improved Ge Surface passivation with ultrathin SiOx enabling high mobility surface channel pMOSFETs featuring a HfSiO/WN gate stack", IEEE Electr. Dev. Lett. 28, p.308, (2007)
76
Y. Wang, K. P. Cheung, R. Choi, G. A. Brown, B. H. Lee, "Accurate series resistance extraction from capacitor using Time-Domain-Reflectometry", IEEE Electr. Dev. Lett. 28, p.279, (2007)
75
G.Bersuker, J.H.Sim, C.S.Park, C.D.Young, S.V.Nadkarni, R.Choi and B. H. Lee, “Mechanism of electron trapping and characteristics of traps in HfO2 gate stacks,”, IEEE. Trans. on Dev. And Mat. Reliability, 7, p.138, (2007)
74
Y. Wang, K. P. Cheung, R. Choi, G. A. Brown, B. H. Lee, "Time Domain Reflectometry for capacitance-voltage measurement with very high leakage current", IEEE Electr. Dev. Lett. 28, p.51, (2007)
73
M. Chang, M. Jo, H. Park, B. H. Lee, R.Choi, and H. Hwang, "Effect of F2 Postmetallization Annealing on the Electrical and Reliability Characteristics of HfSiO Gate Dielectric", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 28, p.21, (2007)
72
O. Sharia, A.Demkov, G.Bersuker, B. H. Lee, "Theoretical study of the insulator interface: band alignment at the SiO2/HfO2 junction", Phys. Rev. B, 74, 1, (2007)
71
P.Kirsch, M.A.Quevedo-Lopez, S.A.Krishnan, G.Pant, M.J.Kim, R.M.Wallace, B.E.Gande, and B. H. Lee, "Mobility and Charge Trapping Comparison for Crystalline and Amorphous HfON and HfSiON Gate Dielectrics", Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 242909, (2006)
70
H.N. Alshareef, H.C.Wen, H.F. Luan, K. Choi, H.R. Harris, Y. Senzaki, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee, B.Foran, G. Lian, "Temperature dependence of the work function of ruthenium-based gate electrodes", Thin Solid Films, 515(4), pp.1294-1298 (2006).
69
H.N. Alshareef, M. Quevedo-Lopez, H.C.Wen, H.R. Harris, P.Kirsch, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee, R. Jammy, D.J.Lichtenwalner, J.S.Jur, A.I.Kingon, "Work function engineering using lanthanide oxide interfacial layers", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, p.232103, (2006)
68
H.-C. Wen, H. R. Harris, C.D. Young, H.Luan, H.N. Alshareef, K. Choi, D.-L. Kwong, P. Majhi, G. Bersuker, and B. H. Lee, "On Oxygen Deficiency and Fast Transient Charge-Trapping Effects in High-k Dielectrics", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 27, p.984, (2006)
67
G. Bersuker, C. S. Park, J. Barnett, P.S. Lysaght, P. D. Kirsch, C.D. Young, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, B. Foran, K. van Benthem, S. J. Pennycook, P. M. Lenahan and J. T. Ryan, "The effect of interfacial layer properties on the performance of Hf-based gate stack devices", J. Appl. Phys. 100, p.094108, (2006)
66
K.S.Chang, M. Green , J. Suehle , E. Vogel , H. Xiong , J. Hattrick-Simpers , I. Takeuchi , O. Famodu , K. Ohmori, P. Ahmet , T. Chikyow , P. Majhi , B. H. Lee and M. Gardner, "Combinatorial Study of Ni-Ti-Pt Ternary Metal Gate Electrodes on HfO2 for the Advanced Gate Stack", Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, p.142108, (2006)
65
G. Thareja, S. Rhee, H.-C. Wen, R. Harris, P. Majhi, B. H. Lee and J.C. Lee, "NMOS Compatible Work Function of TaN Metal Gate With Gadolinium Oxide Buffer Layer on Hf-Based Dielectrics", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 27, p.802, (2006)
64
D.Heh, R. Choi, C.D. Young, B. H. Lee and G.Bersuker, "A novel bias temperature instability characterization methodology for high-k MOSFETs", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 27, p.849, 2006.
63
J.L.Gavartin, D.Munz Ramo, A.L.Shluger, G.Bersuker, B. H. Lee, “Negative oxygen vacancies in HfO2 as charge traps in high-k stacks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, p.082908, (2006)
62
H.K. Park, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, S.C. Song, M. Chang, C.D. Young , G. Bersuker, J.C. Lee and H. Hwang, “Decoupling of cold carrier effects in hot carrier reliability assessment of HfO2 gated nMOSFETs”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., v.27, 8, p.662, (2006)
61
B. H. Lee, P. Kirsch, H. Alshareef, P. Majhi, R. Choi, S. Song, H. H. Tseng and R. Jammy, "Review of alternative gate stack technology research during the last decade", Ceramist, 9, p.57, (2006)
60
S. C. Song, M. M. Hussain, J. Barnett, B. S. Ju, and B. H. Lee, “Integrating dual workfunction metal gates in CMOS,” Solid State Technology, 49(8), pp.47-50, August, (2006)
59
K .Choi, H.N. Alshareef, H.C. Wen, R.Harris, H.Luan, Y. Senzaki, P. Lysaght, P. Majhi and B. H. Lee, "Effective Work Function Modulation of atomic-layer-deposition-TaN film by capping layer", Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 032113, (2006)
58
H.C. Wen,R. Choi, G.A.Brown, T.Boscke, K.Matthews, H.R.Harris, K.Choi, H.N.Alshareef, H.Luan, G.Bersuker, P.Majhi, D.L.Kwong, and B. H. Lee, "Comparison of effective workfunction extraction methods using capacitance and current measurement techniques", IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett.,27,7,p.598, (2006)
57
C.D. Young, D. Heh, S. Nadkarni, R. Choi, J.J. Peterson, J. Barnett, B. H. Lee, and G. Bersuker, “Electron Trap Generation in High-k Gate Stacks by Constant Voltage Stress”, IEEE Trans. Dev. Mat. Reliability, 6, p.123-131, (2006)
56
B.H. Lee, J.W. Oh, H.H. Tseng, R. Jammy and H. Huff, "Gate Stack Technology for Nano Scale Devices: Current and Future Challenges", Materials Today, v.9, p.32, (2006) (Invited)
55
S. C. Song, Z. Zhang, C. Huffman, J. H. Sim, S. H. Bae, P. Kirsch, P. Majhi, N. Moumen, and B. H. Lee, “Highly Manufacturable Advanced Gate Stack Technology for Sub 45nm Self-Aligned Gate-First CMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. on Elec. Dev. 53, p.979, (2006) (Invited)
54
S. C. Song, Z. Zhang, C. Huffman, S. H Bae, J. H. Sim, and B. H. Lee, “Improved Gate-Edge Profile of Metal/High-k Gate Stack Using a NH3 Ashing Process in Gate-First CMOSFETs”, Electrochem. and Solid-State Lett. 9, G4, (2006)
53
S.A. Krishnan, M.Quevedo, R. Harris, P. D. Kirsch, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, G. Bersuker and J.C. Lee, "NBTI Dependence on Dielectric Thickness and Nitrogen concentration in Ultra-scaled HfSiON Dielectric/ ALD-TiN Gate Stacks", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, p.2945, (2006)
52
C.Y. Kang, R. Choi , S.C. Song , C.D. Young, G. Bersuker, B. H. Lee, and J.C. Lee, "Transient Bi-Carrier Response in High-k Dielectrics and its Impact on Transient Charge Effects in High-k CMOS Device", Appl. Phys. Lett., 88, p.162905, (2006)
51
H. Luan, H. N. Alshareef, H. R. Harris, H. C. Wen, K. Choi, Y. Senzaki, P. Majhi and B. H. Lee, "Evaluation of titanium silicon nitride as gate electrodes for complimentary metal-oxide semicondiuctor", Appl. Phys. Lett., 88, p.142113, (2006)
50
H.N. Alshareef, H. F. Luan, K. Choi, H.C. Wen, H.R. Harris, Y. Senzaki, P. Majhi and B. H. Lee, "Metal gate Work Function Engineering Using AlNx Interfacial Layers", Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, p.111124, (2006)
49
S.H.Bae, S.C.Song, K.Choi, G.Bersuker, G.A.Brown, D.L.Kwong, and B. H. Lee, "Thickness optimization of the TiN metal gate with polysilicon-capping layer on Hf-based high-k dielectric", Microelectronic Engineering, 83, 460, (2006)
48
Z. Zhang, S.C. Song, M. Quevedo-Lopez, K. Choi, P. Kirsch, P. Lysaght, and B. H. Lee, “Co-Optimization of Metal Gate/High-k Stack to Achieve High-Field Mobility > 90% of SiO2 Universal with EOT = ~1 nm”, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 27, p.185, (2006)
47
R. Choi, C.D. Young, G. Bersuker, Y.Zhao, B. H. Lee, "Characterization and Reliability Measurement Issues in Novel Gate Stack Devices", Thin Solid Films, 504, p.223, (2006)
46
P.Majhi, HC.Wen, H.N.Alshareef, H.R.Harris, H.Luan, K.Choi, C.S.Park, S.C.Song, B. H. Lee and R.Jammy, “A systematic approach to addressing metal gate issues on high-k dielectrics for future generation CMOS”, MICRO, (2006)